The clock in Minneapolis was wrong.
It was a mistake.
It should have been the first time the US state moved from the current day to the “day of the year,” a national consensus that has not yet taken hold in the United States.
But that consensus was born a century ago.
In the 1870s, a young Pennsylvania man named Edward Carpenter began making clocks that had no mechanism.
He was the son of an English immigrant who came to America in 1780, and he made his first clock in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
He then moved to New York City, where he was hired to build and sell clocks to merchants.
By the time he finished his first shipment in 1877, he had a reputation for being a master craftsman.
But the first year of the 20th century was not a great time for clockmaking.
By 1900, the clockmaking industry had been virtually destroyed by the First World War.
When the clockmakers and dealers returned to America, they were desperate for new and better clocks, and Carpenter became a sought-after clockmaker.
As the clock industry suffered, the new-fashioned designs he had produced during the war helped to bring about a new and improved clock industry.
He became the “Father of Modern Timekeeping.”
By the turn of the century, he and other clockmakers had perfected the basic clock, the pendulum clock.
That’s when the US went from a time zone to a day-time one, the first of many changes that would shape our lives.
For most of the 19th century, the US was a time-zone.
In 1854, Congress passed a law requiring that the US be a “time zone” of “one half hour.”
But by the turn.
century, that was outdated and outdated was no longer a good reason to keep time.
The United States was no closer to adopting a new time-keeping standard than it was to changing its name to the United Kingdom.
And for most of that time, there was little in the way of an official time system.
When US Secretary of the Interior Benjamin Harrison made his announcement in 1862 that the United STATES would become a “day time” country, he did so with a flourish.
Harrison was a staunch advocate of an idea known as the “three-hour rule.”
He said that the time in America should be measured by three-hundredths of a second, which was “a very convenient system of measurement for a people that have spent many a year in the desert and the ocean and the forest.”
And in 1868, he wrote a letter to the editor of The New York Times, which proclaimed, “It is impossible to give the American people, by any means, the greatest possible freedom in choosing their own time, and it is therefore most necessary that they should have the power to make this choice themselves.”
It was the perfect time to try to create the kind of a system of time that was still in place in many parts of the world.
Harrison, who was the secretary of the Department of Agriculture, proposed an amendment to the Constitution that would have the US adopt a time that he described as “two hours.”
The proposed amendment, which did not get the required two-thirds vote, passed the House of Representatives on November 14, 1868.
But it never became law.
After the amendment was passed, the Supreme Court ruled that the Constitution did not provide for the three-hour clock, which the House had just passed.
And so, on November 18, 1867, a federal district court ruled that it did not require a clock to be made by hand.
And in January 1868 the Supreme Judicial Court ruled in favor of the US.
But as the American clock industry began to recover in the early 1890s, there were still many Americans who wanted their clocks made by machines, and they were not satisfied with the three hour rule.
As many as six states and Washington, D.C., were considering a change in the US’s clock system, including New York and California, which had adopted a time system based on the pendulums.
And by 1892, a group of American clockmakers—including Carpenter, Charles F. Baudelaire, John C. Calhoun, and Thomas C. Bemis—was lobbying Congress to pass a law that would allow the United Nations to decide when the clock should be turned on and when it should be set aside for the night.
By 1894, the bill passed both houses of Congress.
But not everyone in the clock world welcomed the change.
“What has changed is the technology,” says John Cavanaugh, who founded the clock company, the Baudellys, in 1976.
“They didn’t have the pendula clock in the 1850s.
Now they have it.
They are trying to do the same thing.”
In other words, they want to do what they did before and do it well.